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Check everartio's Instagram Traditional Tswana warrior dance. 📲 @everart.io #everartio 1461045593597023388_3029088524

Traditional Tswana warrior dance. 📲 @everart.io #everartio

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Check ripoli7's Instagram @Regrann from @nasa -  The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring.
Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl 
#nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science - #regrann 1461042527770580328_3852181168

@Regrann from @nasa - The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring. Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl #nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science- #regrann

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Check everartio's Instagram 🎨 #CheLovelace 'Powder Face, 2008' 📲 @everart.io #everartio 1461041345622735501_3029088524

🎨 #chelovelace'Powder Face, 2008' 📲 @everart.io #everartio

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram Extrasolar Super-Earth Gliese 1214b Might Hold Water, Might this distant planet hold water? Actually, given how close Gliese 1214b is to its parent star, any water, if it exists, would surely be in the form of steam. In the above artist's illustration, the super-Earth Gliese 1214b is imagined passing in front of its parent star, creating a mini-eclipse that alerted humanity to its presence. Gliese 1214b, also designated GJ 1214b, has been designated a super-Earth because it is larger than the Earth but smaller a planet like Neptune. The entire Gliese 1214 planetary system is of the closest known systems to our Sun, located only 42 light years away. The parent star, Gliese 1214 is a slightly smaller and cooler version of our Sun. Recent observations from the Subaru telescope in Hawaii found very little scattering of blue light from the parent star by the planet. This appears most consistent with a planet that has a watery atmosphere -- although it is still possible that the super-Earth has clouds so thick that little of any color of light was scattered. Detecting water on exoplanets is important partly because most lifeforms on Earth need water to survive.

#astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #NASA #Hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond 1461015087417637459_4008710248

Extrasolar Super-Earth Gliese 1214b Might Hold Water, Might this distant planet hold water? Actually, given how close Gliese 1214b is to its parent star, any water, if it exists, would surely be in the form of steam. In the above artist's illustration, the super-Earth Gliese 1214b is imagined passing in front of its parent star, creating a mini-eclipse that alerted humanity to its presence. Gliese 1214b, also designated GJ 1214b, has been designated a super-Earth because it is larger than the Earth but smaller a planet like Neptune. The entire Gliese 1214 planetary system is of the closest known systems to our Sun, located only 42 light years away. The parent star, Gliese 1214 is a slightly smaller and cooler version of our Sun. Recent observations from the Subaru telescope in Hawaii found very little scattering of blue light from the parent star by the planet. This appears most consistent with a planet that has a watery atmosphere -- although it is still possible that the super-Earth has clouds so thick that little of any color of light was scattered. Detecting water on exoplanets is important partly because most lifeforms on Earth need water to survive. #astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #nasa #hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram This video would help you understand the movement of planets around the Sun. 
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy.

The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is currently about 0.0167; the Earth's orbit is nearly circular. Venus and Neptune have even lower eccentricity. Over hundreds of thousands of years, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit varies from nearly 0.0034 to almost 0.058 as a result of gravitational attractions among the planets 
If the orbital eccentricity is 0, it means that the orbit of a body is an absolute, perfect circle. As it moves in fractions/decimals till 1 the orbit becomes more and more elliptical. Greater than 1, is the hyperbolic escape orbit for any body.
The orbital eccentricity depends upon the gravity, angular momentum and reduced mass.

elliptic (eccentricity = 0.7)  parabolic (eccentricity = 1)
hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity = 1.3)

The equation goes like
e = √1+ 2EL^2/ mred α^2.
Read it, like you read a language. 
e is the eccentricity
1 and 2 are constants
E is the orbital energy (total of mutual potential and kinetic energy, divided by their reduced mass)
L is angular momentum
mred is the reduced mass
α is the coefficient of the inverse square law.

Simply, eccentricity, is equal to the orbital energy into the angular momentum (which make up the movement), divided by the reduced mass into the gravitational force by distance (which make up the position).
So you divide them both, to know trajectory of a body.

Video credits: @knowledge.ig 1461011780057893183_4008710248

This video would help you understand the movement of planets around the Sun. The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit, and greater than 1 is a hyperbola. The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections, as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem, but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy. The eccentricity of the Earth's orbit is currently about 0.0167; the Earth's orbit is nearly circular. Venus and Neptune have even lower eccentricity. Over hundreds of thousands of years, the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit varies from nearly 0.0034 to almost 0.058 as a result of gravitational attractions among the planets If the orbital eccentricity is 0, it means that the orbit of a body is an absolute, perfect circle. As it moves in fractions/decimals till 1 the orbit becomes more and more elliptical. Greater than 1, is the hyperbolic escape orbit for any body. The orbital eccentricity depends upon the gravity, angular momentum and reduced mass. elliptic (eccentricity = 0.7) parabolic (eccentricity = 1) hyperbolic orbit (eccentricity = 1.3) The equation goes like e = √1+ 2EL^2/ mred α^2. Read it, like you read a language. e is the eccentricity 1 and 2 are constants E is the orbital energy (total of mutual potential and kinetic energy, divided by their reduced mass) L is angular momentum mred is the reduced mass α is the coefficient of the inverse square law. Simply, eccentricity, is equal to the orbital energy into the angular momentum (which make up the movement), divided by the reduced mass into the gravitational force by distance (which make up the position). So you divide them both, to know trajectory of a body. Video credits: @knowledge.ig

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Check eileenyoyoyoyo's Instagram This was 11th grade project topic my teacher assigned me.. he asked me to prove the existence of dark matter with calculations. Now here you go with a picture from NASA problem solved. Yeah just something I would like to share. It's late so i guess it's fine to post some random stuff
#Repost @nasa with @repostapp
・・・
We found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, produced by the universe's most energetic phenomena. They're common in galaxies like the Milky Way because cosmic rays, particles moving near the speed of light, produce gamma rays when they interact with interstellar gas clouds and starlight. The gamma-ray excess (shown in yellow-white) at the heart of M31 hints at unexpected goings-on in the galaxy's central region. Scientists think the signal could be produced by a variety of processes, including a population of pulsars or even dark matter.

Credits: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration and Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF

#nasa #nasabeyond #space #astronomy #galaxy #darkmatter #milyway #science 1461008404742736870_1274102

This was 11th grade project topic my teacher assigned me.. he asked me to prove the existence of dark matter with calculations. Now here you go with a picture from NASA problem solved. Yeah just something I would like to share. It's late so i guess it's fine to post some random stuff #repost@nasa with @repostapp ・・・ We found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, produced by the universe's most energetic phenomena. They're common in galaxies like the Milky Way because cosmic rays, particles moving near the speed of light, produce gamma rays when they interact with interstellar gas clouds and starlight. The gamma-ray excess (shown in yellow-white) at the heart of M31 hints at unexpected goings-on in the galaxy's central region. Scientists think the signal could be produced by a variety of processes, including a population of pulsars or even dark matter. Credits: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration and Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF #nasa #nasabeyond #space #astronomy #galaxy #darkmatter #milyway #science

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Check animals_nature_landscape's Instagram #Repost @nasa The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring. Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl #nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science 1461007295533958362_3948332722

#repost@nasa The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring. Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl #nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science

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Check scopedawgoptics's Instagram Shout out to all the astronomy buffs out there, and of course @sublimepottery for these incredible solar inspired ceramics! 1461003514024879709_4539485614

Shout out to all the astronomy buffs out there, and of course @sublimepottery for these incredible solar inspired ceramics!

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Check allisonpinklp's Instagram I ❤️ Saturn. #Repost @nasa
・・・
The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring.
Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl 
#nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science 1460991599282429955_3276280

I ❤️ Saturn. #repost@nasa ・・・ The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring. Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl #nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science

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Check everartio's Instagram 🎨 @solomonadufah 📲 @everart.io #everartio #solomonadufah 1460982631893169806_3029088524

🎨 @solomonadufah 📲 @everart.io #everartio #solomonadufah

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram In one of the brightest parts of Milky Way lies a nebula where some of the oddest things occur. NGC 3372, known as the Great Nebula in Carina, is home to massive stars and changing nebulas. The Keyhole Nebula (NGC 3324), the bright structure just above the image center, houses several of these massive stars and has itself  changed its appearance. The entire Carina Nebula spans over 300 light years and lies about 7,500 light-years away in the constellation of Carina.  Eta Carinae, the most energetic star in the nebula, was one of the brightest stars in the sky in the 1830s, but then faded dramatically. Eta Carinae is the brightest star near the image center, just left of the Keyhole Nebula. While Eta Carinae itself maybe on the verge of a supernova explosion, X-ray images indicate that much of the Great Carina. 
#astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #NASA #Hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond 1460959552433333547_4008710248

In one of the brightest parts of Milky Way lies a nebula where some of the oddest things occur. NGC 3372, known as the Great Nebula in Carina, is home to massive stars and changing nebulas. The Keyhole Nebula (NGC 3324), the bright structure just above the image center, houses several of these massive stars and has itself changed its appearance. The entire Carina Nebula spans over 300 light years and lies about 7,500 light-years away in the constellation of Carina. Eta Carinae, the most energetic star in the nebula, was one of the brightest stars in the sky in the 1830s, but then faded dramatically. Eta Carinae is the brightest star near the image center, just left of the Keyhole Nebula. While Eta Carinae itself maybe on the verge of a supernova explosion, X-ray images indicate that much of the Great Carina. #astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #nasa #hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram The Great Red Spot is a massive anticyclonic storm in the atmosphere of the giant planet, Jupiter. Scientists aren't sure exactly how long the storm has existed. They estimate a minimum storm lifetime of 150 years or so. How long it will continue to exist remains a mystery. The Great Red Spot is so large that it could contain about two to three planets the size of Earth. 
Scientists have known for quite some time that the Great Red Spot is shrinking in size. About a century ago it was around 40,000 km in diameter. Its diameter is now between 24,000 and 40,000 km. It's unlikely, however, that the Great Red Spot will cease to exist altogether.
Scientists still aren't sure how the Great Red Spot is red in colour. Some theories suggest that the colour of the Great Red Spot is caused by complex organic molecules, sulfur compounds and red phosphorus. 
Image credit: NASA/ESA

#astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #NASA #Hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond 1460949512771175511_4008710248

The Great Red Spot is a massive anticyclonic storm in the atmosphere of the giant planet, Jupiter. Scientists aren't sure exactly how long the storm has existed. They estimate a minimum storm lifetime of 150 years or so. How long it will continue to exist remains a mystery. The Great Red Spot is so large that it could contain about two to three planets the size of Earth. Scientists have known for quite some time that the Great Red Spot is shrinking in size. About a century ago it was around 40,000 km in diameter. Its diameter is now between 24,000 and 40,000 km. It's unlikely, however, that the Great Red Spot will cease to exist altogether. Scientists still aren't sure how the Great Red Spot is red in colour. Some theories suggest that the colour of the Great Red Spot is caused by complex organic molecules, sulfur compounds and red phosphorus. Image credit: NASA/ESA #astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #nasa #hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond

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Check stromaestro's Instagram regram @nasa
The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring.
Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl 
#nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science 1460927671294208682_435622870

regram @nasa The north pole of Saturn sits at the center of its own domain. Around it swirl the clouds, driven by the fast winds of Saturn. Beyond that orbits Saturn's retinue of moons and the countless small particles that form the ring. Although the poles of Saturn are at the center of all of this motion, not everything travels around them in circles. Some of the jet-stream patterns, such as the hexagon-shaped pattern seen here, have wavy, uneven shapes. The moons as well have orbits that are elliptical, some quite far from circular. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute @nasajpl #nasa #space #supernova #stars #pulsar #nasabeyond #astronomy #science

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Check lillys_'s Instagram #Rensta #Repost: @nasa via @renstapp ···
“ A cluster of young stars - about one to two million years old - located about 20,000 light years from Earth.  Data in visible light from the Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue) reveal thick clouds where the stars are forming. High-energy radiation in the form of X-rays, however, can penetrate this cosmic haze, and are detected by Chandra (purple). Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/Sejong Univ./Hur et al; Optical: NASA/STScI

#nasa #space #chandra #nasabeyond #hubble #xray #stars #astronomy #science ” 1460915064911793353_20392445

#rensta #Repost: @nasa via @renstapp ··· “ A cluster of young stars - about one to two million years old - located about 20,000 light years from Earth. Data in visible light from the Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue) reveal thick clouds where the stars are forming. High-energy radiation in the form of X-rays, however, can penetrate this cosmic haze, and are detected by Chandra (purple). Image credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/Sejong Univ./Hur et al; Optical: NASA/STScI #nasa #space #chandra #nasabeyond #hubble #xray #stars #astronomy #science

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Check thehubblescope's Instagram Rosette Nebula
.
"For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office:"
.
Would the Rosette Nebula by any other name look as sweet? The bland New General Catalog designation of NGC 2237 doesn't appear to diminish the appearance of thisflowery emission nebula. Inside the nebula lies an open cluster of bright young stars designated NGC 2244. These stars formed about four million years ago from the nebular material and theirstellar winds are clearing a hole in the nebula's center, insulated by a layer of dust and hot gas.Ultraviolet light from the hot cluster stars causes the surrounding nebula to glow. The Rosette Nebula spans about 100 light-years across, lies about 5000 light-years away, and can be seen with a small telescope towards the constellation of the Unicorn (Monoceros).
.
#amazing #astronomy #beauty #chandra #bible #bibletext #nasabeyond #constellation #creation #galaxy #hubble #hubbletelescope #interstellar #nature #nasa #cosmos #hubblehangout #space #universe #scripture #naturelovers #cosmology #science #hst 1460900095162915285_1632759102

Rosette Nebula . "For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office:" . Would the Rosette Nebula by any other name look as sweet? The bland New General Catalog designation of NGC 2237 doesn't appear to diminish the appearance of thisflowery emission nebula. Inside the nebula lies an open cluster of bright young stars designated NGC 2244. These stars formed about four million years ago from the nebular material and theirstellar winds are clearing a hole in the nebula's center, insulated by a layer of dust and hot gas.Ultraviolet light from the hot cluster stars causes the surrounding nebula to glow. The Rosette Nebula spans about 100 light-years across, lies about 5000 light-years away, and can be seen with a small telescope towards the constellation of the Unicorn (Monoceros). . #amazing #astronomy #beauty #chandra #bible #bibletext #nasabeyond #constellation #creation #galaxy #hubble #hubbletelescope #interstellar #nature #nasa #cosmos #hubblehangout #space #universe #scripture #naturelovers #cosmology #science #hst

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram Object name: TRAPPIST1-h
Type: planet
Specification: last / 7th planet, coldest, obscure
Information: Mysterious, and ambiguous information
The coldest planet, icy and outside the Goldilocks region
distance almost as the Earth and the Sun- 0.063 AU.

TRAPPIST-1h is an Earth-sized exoplanet, meaning it has a mass and radius close to that of Earth. It has an equilibrium temperature of 168 K (−105 °C; −157 °F). TRAPPIST-1h orbits its host star with an orbital period of about 20 days and an orbital radius of about 0.063 times that of Earth's (compared to the distance of Mercury from the Sun, which is about 0.38 AU)
-

Image credit: NASA

#astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #NASA #Hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond 1460867518750145144_4008710248

Object name: TRAPPIST1-h Type: planet Specification: last / 7th planet, coldest, obscure Information: Mysterious, and ambiguous information The coldest planet, icy and outside the Goldilocks region distance almost as the Earth and the Sun- 0.063 AU. TRAPPIST-1h is an Earth-sized exoplanet, meaning it has a mass and radius close to that of Earth. It has an equilibrium temperature of 168 K (−105 °C; −157 °F). TRAPPIST-1h orbits its host star with an orbital period of about 20 days and an orbital radius of about 0.063 times that of Earth's (compared to the distance of Mercury from the Sun, which is about 0.38 AU) - Image credit: NASA #astronomy #astronomer #astrophysics #space #cosmos #science #physics #universe #stars #planet #astronaut #constellation #interstellar #spacetravel #outerspace #sun #chandra #astrobiology #nasa #hubble #telescope #galaxy #stargazing #starstuff #creation #photography #astrophotography #amazing #explore #nasabeyond

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Check astrophysicsig's Instagram The discovery of seven exo-planets around one ultracool red dwarf star, Earlier in 2016, scientists detected a planet orbiting the star Proxima Centauri (a red dwarf), our nearest stellar neighbour; So, in this post I'd discuss the habitability of planets around these type of stars. 
The habitability of red dwarf systems is determined by a large number of factors from a variety of sources. Although the low stellar flux, high probability of tidal locking, small circumstellar habitable zones, and high stellar variation experienced by planets of red dwarf stars are impediments to their planetary habitability, the ubiquity and longevity of red dwarfs are positive factors. Determining how the interactions between these factors affect habitability may help to reveal the frequency of extraterrestrial life and intelligence.
Intense tidal heating caused by the proximity of planets to their host red dwarfs is a major impediment to life developing in these systems. Other tidal effects, such as the extreme temperature differences created by one side of habitable-zone planets permanently facing the star and the other perpetually turned away and lack of planetary axial tilts, reduce the probability of life around red dwarfs. Non-tidal factors, such as extreme stellar variation, spectral energy distributions shifted to the infrared relative to the Sun, and small circumstellar habitable zones due to low light output, further reduce the prospects for life in red-dwarf systems.

There are, however, several effects that increase the likelihood of life on red dwarf planets. Intense cloud formation on the star-facing side of a tidally locked planet may reduce overall thermal flux and drastically reduce equilibrium temperature differences between the two sides of the planet. In addition, the sheer number of red dwarfs, which account for about 85% of at least 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, statistically increases the probability that there might exist habitable planets orbiting some of them. As of 2013, there are expected to be tens of billions of super-Earth planets in the habitable zones of red dwarf stars in the Milky Way. 1460857842297866403_4008710248

The discovery of seven exo-planets around one ultracool red dwarf star, Earlier in 2016, scientists detected a planet orbiting the star Proxima Centauri (a red dwarf), our nearest stellar neighbour; So, in this post I'd discuss the habitability of planets around these type of stars. The habitability of red dwarf systems is determined by a large number of factors from a variety of sources. Although the low stellar flux, high probability of tidal locking, small circumstellar habitable zones, and high stellar variation experienced by planets of red dwarf stars are impediments to their planetary habitability, the ubiquity and longevity of red dwarfs are positive factors. Determining how the interactions between these factors affect habitability may help to reveal the frequency of extraterrestrial life and intelligence. Intense tidal heating caused by the proximity of planets to their host red dwarfs is a major impediment to life developing in these systems. Other tidal effects, such as the extreme temperature differences created by one side of habitable-zone planets permanently facing the star and the other perpetually turned away and lack of planetary axial tilts, reduce the probability of life around red dwarfs. Non-tidal factors, such as extreme stellar variation, spectral energy distributions shifted to the infrared relative to the Sun, and small circumstellar habitable zones due to low light output, further reduce the prospects for life in red-dwarf systems. There are, however, several effects that increase the likelihood of life on red dwarf planets. Intense cloud formation on the star-facing side of a tidally locked planet may reduce overall thermal flux and drastically reduce equilibrium temperature differences between the two sides of the planet. In addition, the sheer number of red dwarfs, which account for about 85% of at least 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, statistically increases the probability that there might exist habitable planets orbiting some of them. As of 2013, there are expected to be tens of billions of super-Earth planets in the habitable zones of red dwarf stars in the Milky Way.

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